Sunday, November 21, 2010

Takin' a Penguin to prom? He already has a Tux!

Melanosomes are organelles–cell parts–responsible for producing the pigment melanin. These tiny bits of biology can be preserved in fossils, which have led to some really cool papers. Scientists have now recovered melanosomes from dinosaur fossils, for instance; the pigment allowed researchers to determine how certain dinosaurs were colored.
Fossilized feathers from an ancient penguin species, Inkayacu paracasensis

A new study, reveals another neat use for fossilized melanosomes–tracing the evolutionary history of the penguin. The birds have remarkable feathers, perfectly designed not only to allow the penguins to glide through the water at high speeds but also to insulate them from the breathtaking cold. For these reasons, and others, penguins’ feathers are radically different than those of other birds.

The new research begins to reveal how these multitasking feathers evolved. The scientists studied the 36 million year old fossilized feathers of Inkayacu paracasensis, a newly discovered species of giant penguin that stood five feet tall. From the outside the feathers looked just like those of modern penguins, with the same streamlined shape and dense packing.

But the melanosomes told a different story, revealing that the ancient penguin would have displayed gray and reddish-brown patterning. Today’s penguins, on the other hand, have melanosomes that make them look black. The findings suggest that the exterior of penguin’s feathers evolved first and that only later did the interior of the feathers, with their melanosomes, change.

Artist's reconstruction of Inkayacu paracasensis

Among the coolest things of this paper is the very end, when the researchers write about what could have driven the color change. Previous studies have suggested that melanin can protect feathers from breakage and damage. Penguins swim underwater at incredible speeds (in what’s known as “aquatic flight”) and their feathers must withstand enormous pressures and forces. Birds with more melanin–and, therefore, darker feathers–may have had a survival advantage. That cute black suit that makes us flock to the theaters to see movies about penguins? Perhaps that’s just an unintended–if handsome–side effect.


Julia A. Clarke, Daniel T. Ksepka, Rodolfo Salas-Gismondi, Ali J. Altamirano, Matthew D. Shawkey, Liliana D’Alba, Jakob Vinther, Thomas J. DeVries, Patrice Baby (2010). Fossil Evidence for Evolution of the Shape and Color of Penguin Feathers. Science : 10.1126/science.1193604


  1. I googled penguin top speed and what came up was that gentoo penguins can swim up to 36 mph, but one source claimed penguins can get up to 100 mph?! I doubt this.

  2. Its interesting to know that there have been other colors in ancient penguins. The typical colors you think of in a penguin are black and white. Others do have differing colors but its really neat to think that there could have been reddish brown. It would have been kind of scary to see 5 foot penguins waddling around.

  3. Yes, they are cute, but smelly and not too bright.